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The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural

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The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.
A) cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for
B) cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to
C) cooperate with governments for improvements of access for farmers to
D) cooperate with governments and improve accessibility for farmers for their
E) in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for

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Official Answer

2 Answers

GMATwithCJ
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Solution

Sentence Analysis

In the given sentence, ?cooperating? is incorrect since it is not parallel to anything before ?and?. Now, this part can be made parallel to either ?works? or ?strengthen?, producing any of the below two meanings:

  1. The foundation works to cooperate with governments
  2. The foundation cooperates with governments

The second meaning looks more logical since one can cooperate directly; one doesn?t need to work to cooperate. However, it?s better to be open to both of these meanings.

Also, ?improving access? is presented as a verb-ing modifier modifying the preceding clause. However, it doesn?t make a lot of sense: ?improving access for farmers? doesn?t look like a natural consequence of foundation?s cooperating with the government.

The third problem is non-idiomatic ?access for productive resources?. When we want to talk about ? what is to be accessed?, we need to use ?access to?. ?access for farmers? is correct since here we are talking about ? who needs to access?.

Option Analysis

(A) Incorrect . For the three errors mentioned above.

(B) Correct . This option corrects all the three errors of the original sentence without introducing any new error. In this option, ?cooperates? is parallel to ?works?.

(C) Incorrect . Since the purpose of cooperation is ?improvement of access?, such information is better presented using ?to + verb? i.e. ?to improve?. Although, ?cooperate? is not incorrect since it is parallel to ?strengthen?, the construction in option B is more logical, as highlighted in the sentence analysis.

(D) Incorrect . For the following reasons:

  1. In this option, ?strengthen?, ?cooperate?, and ?improve? are three parallel elements in a list. However, they are connected improperly using two ands. Also, logically, option B makes more sense in which ?cooperate? and ?improve? are not separate actions.
  2. ?accessibility for productive resources? is non-idiomatic. It has to be ?accessibility to?.
  3. ?their? distorts the meaning. Are we trying to improve farmers? access to their own resources? Probably, not.

(E) Incorrect . For the following reasons:

  1. ?in cooperation? is not parallel to anything before ?and?.
  2. ?access for productive resources? is incorrect as highlighted in the sentence analysis.
answered Jun 10, 2017 by Beginner (1 point)
gmatclubforum
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TheLordCommander , there's not simple answer to your question. As folks above have mentioned, it can be helpful to have extra markers, such as matched prepositions, to make the parallel items clear, but we won't always have that. Even when those markers do appear, they can shift from one choice to another, forcing us to determine the intended meaning and use that to choose answer.
So yes, there's no reason why the parallel items can't be "strengthen" and "cooperate," at least in theory. How do we know which way to go?
1) The choices that do this are wrong for other reasons. C is a mess of stacked modifiers. D gives us this structure: "The foundation works to strengthen and cooperate and improve." That would need to be a list! In fact, that double "and" is a clue that the second and third items in this list (cooperate and improve) are meant to be a pair, separate from the first.
2) The items need to be logically parallel. When we say that the foundation works to strengthen markets, we mean that strengthening markets is a goal. If we make "cooperate" parallel with "strengthen," we are saying that cooperation with governments is also a goal--something that the foundation is trying to do. It makes more sense to see cooperation as a means to an end. The foundation cooperates in order to improve access.
answered Jun 10, 2017 by Beginner (21 points)
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