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Tropical bats play important roles in the rain forest ecosystem

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Tropical bats play important roles in the rain forest ecosystem, aiding in the dispersal of cashew, date, and fig seeds; pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly help produce tequila by pollinating agave plants
A. pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly help produce
B. pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly helping to produce
C pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and they indirectly help to produce
D they pollinate banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly help producing
E they pollinate banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; indirectly helping the producing of

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MagooshGMAT
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answered Jun 10, 2017 by Beginner (1 point)
GMATwithCJ
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Solution

Sentence Analysis

  • Tropical bats play important roles in the rain forest ecosystem, (Main clause. Subject ? "Tropical bats"; Verb ? "play")
    • aiding in the dispersal of cashew, date, and fig seeds; (First verb-ing modifier modifying the preceding clause. How they play important roles? By aiding_)
    • pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; (Second verb-ing modifier modifying the preceding clause)
    • and indirectly help produce tequila by pollinating agave plants. (To maintain parallelism, this part needs to be a verb-ing modifier modifying the preceding clause)

The sentence says that Tropical bats play important roles in the rain forest ecosystem. How? By doing three things described in a list of three verb-ing modifiers. As we can see the three elements are separated by semi-colons and not commas. Why? Because the elements themselves contain commas. So, using commas to separate these three elements would create confusion.

Rather, separating elements in a list in which the elements themselves contain commas is one of the uses of a semi-colon.

The error in the sentence is a lack of parallelism in the third element. To maintain parallelism, the third element needs to be a verb-ing modifier.

Option Analysis

(A) Incorrect . For the lack of parallelism described above.

(B) Correct .

(C) Incorrect . The clause "they indirectly help" is not parallel to the other two verb-ing modifiers. Also, if the intention were to present this information as a separate clause, then it needs to be joined with the previous clause using "comma + and" (Two independent clauses cannot be joined with just "and"). Also, presenting this information as a separate clause creates an additional error. There are only two members in the list: "aiding" and "pollinating". These two members need to be joined with "and", not with a comma.

(D) Incorrect . For the lack of parallelism.

(E) Incorrect . For the lack of parallelism. Also, "helping the producing of" is an awkward expression compared to "helping to produce".

answered Jun 10, 2017 by Beginner (1 point)
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