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Especially in the early years new entrepreneurs may need to find

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Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, that make their company seem large and more firmly established than they may actually be.
A) that make their company seem large
B) to make their companies seem larger
C) thus making their companies seem larger
D) so that the companies seem larger
E) of making their company seem large

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GMATwithCJ
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Top Pick from GMAT with CJ

Solution

Sentence Analysis

  • Especially in the early years, (prepositional phrase modifying the clause)
  • new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, (Subject ? "entrepreneurs"; Verb ? "may need")
    • like renting temporary office space or using answering services, (modifier within double comma. Provides examples of resourceful ways)
    • that make their company seem (relative clause modifying "resourceful ways")
      • large (First member of the list)
      • and more firmly established than they may actually be. (Second member of the list)

The sentence talks about something that new entrepreneurs need to do especially in their early years. They may need to find resourceful ways to make their companies seem large and to make their companies seem more firmly established than the companies actually are.

The sentence has the following problems:

  1. The plural "they" in the comparison "than they may actually be" doesn?t agree with the singular "company".
  2. The structures "way to verb" or "way of verb-ing" are preferred over "way that verb" because it is not the "way" that performs any action. The action is performed by someone else through the "way". Thus, "ways to make their _" and "ways of making their_" are preferred over the given "ways that make their_".

Option Analysis

(A) Incorrect . For the reasons mentioned above.

(B) Correct . This option corrects both the errors in the original sentence. This option also changes "large" to "larger", making this info also a part of the comparison "than they may actually be". Structurally, "larger" fits in perfectly in the sentence. Even though there is a slight change in meaning, such meaning change is acceptable if the new meaning is logical.

(C) Incorrect . As is, this verb-ing modifier "making_" modifies the preceding clause. However, the modification is illogical since the fact that entrepreneurs need to find resourceful ways doesn?t make their companies seem larger!

(D) Incorrect . This option distorts the meaning. As is, this option implies that the reason entrepreneurs need to find resourceful ways is that their companies seem larger_ However, this is not the reason or purpose for the "need"; this is the purpose of "ways". The meaning is most clearly expressed using "ways to make their companies seem larger".

(E) Incorrect . This option has Error no. 1 of the original sentence.

Please note that this question is PRECEDENT-SETTING in a way that it uses ?like? to offer examples. The question, thus, puts the debate "whether like can be used to offer examples" to rest once and for all. Therefore, one should never reject an option just because it uses ?like? to offer examples.

answered Jun 10, 2017 by Beginner (1 point)
gmatclubforum
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Top Pick from GMAT Club Forum

Warning: Really long post.
Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, that make their company seem large and more firmly established than they may actually be.
A) that make their company seem large
B) to make their companies seem larger
C) thus making their companies seem larger
D) so that the companies seem larger
E) of making their company seem large
Problems with option D:
X so that Y: Usage of this idiom implies:
1) Y is subordinate to X
2)Y is adverbial, i.e., it is an explainer for the clause X. It answers the question why X?
Why do the new entrepreneurs need to find resourceful ways? So that the companies seem larger and more established.
While this makes perfect sense logically, this is not the intended meaning. It is not clear who makes the companies seem larger and more established. The intended meaning is to bring out the intent : the ability of new age entrepreneurs to control/influence the outcome.
Analogous question:OG #171
In 1527 King Henry VII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so as to marry Anne Boleyn.
A) so as to marry
Doesn't make it clear who is to marry Anne Boleyn? Is it King Henry VII? Queen Catherine? Anyone else in the world ? GMATis uncomfortable with this level of logical ambiguity.
D) so that he could marry
Aha! So...he himself wanted to marry Anne Boleyn. No wonder he tried to annul the marriage.
To resolve between A) and D) we have to use the same logic.
Too subtle? Unfortunately this is the only way to resolve this split correctly, as some of you intuitively figured out.
Key takeway:
The to-infinitive states purpose with the subject involved more directly,whereas "so X that Y" has more indirect implications.
In broader terms, grammar alone is insufficient to get through SC: <!-- m --> http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/ ... -questions <!-- m -->
Here is how you can solve this question using meaning:
Converting this question into an analogous easier to digest sentence to spot, extract and replace:
A)We need to find ways THAT beat GMAT.
B)We need to find ways TO beat the GMAT.
C)We need to ways THUS beating the GMAT
D)We need to find the way SO THAT GMAT is beaten.
E)We need to find ways OF beating the GMAT.
Only E) and B) are correct, because OF and TO are the correct preposition that go with WAYS, as confirmed by the official explanation.
The basis of this decision is meaning: We are concerned with the ability to control the outcome of the GMAT. This is why demonstrative THAT in A is wrong, the adverbials THUS in C) and SO THAT in D) are all wrong.
My 2 cents:
If you see this as the only split to resolve between the two options(one that uses so X that Y & the other uses X to Y) then the questions is experimental and you dont have to worry about it, as Ron and Mike both agree that GMAT does't test only this split. (I can post citations if someone requests them.)
On the other hand this questions does have another split. Comparing B) and D) vertically(since we have already eliminated all other options based on criteria already discussed above) quickly lands us an easy decision point.
B) to make their companies seem larger
D) so that the companies seem larger
Did you catch the subtle scope shift? There is significant loss in intended meaning.
Why at all should new age entrepreneurs be worried about all companies? They are desperate to search for innovative means so as to ensure that their companies see the light of day!
Other splits not discussed (Disclaimer :read only if really really interested):
How to resolve between "of" and "to" without using other splits:Chronology!
Again meaning gives a interesting insight that helps me arrive at the right answer without searching for other splits.
B) to make their companies seem larger
Implies correct chronology: the infinitive "may need to" is futuristic: When the statement has been made the companies have not yet been made to appear larger or well established. First we find ways, then implement it and ultimately reap the benefits.
E) of making their company seem large
Chronology of the gerund "making":Since a gerund is a noun, it exists objectively, i.e., it already exists(either starting at the same time or before the time of the main clause.
This implies, that the companies have already or are currently being made to appear well established. This is grossly incorrect, as the time of occurrence of main sentence(present), new age entrepreneurs have not found ways yet.
This is not evident in first read, but read it a couple of times and you can recognize why this is enough to solve the question.
P.S.:Usage of Like is completely justified since the author of the sentence is speculating on hypothetical examples ("may need to..."), not literal ones.
Please give kudos if you liked it, took me a while to type this out.

answered Jun 10, 2017 by Beginner (21 points)
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