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# Many experts regarded the increase in credit card borrowing in March

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Many experts regarded the increase in credit card borrowing in March not as a sign that households were pressed for cash and forced to borrow, rather a sign of confidence by households that they could safely handle new debt.
A rather a sign of confidence by households that they could safely
B yet as a sign of households' confidence that it was safe for them to
C but a sign of confidence by households that they could safely
D but as a sign that households were confident they could safely
E but also as a sign that households were confident in their ability safely to

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Hi there,
Your doubt is pretty valid. Generally two indepedent clauses are joined together by using a conjunction. Here "that" is the conjunction that should be joining these two ICs. However, many a times "that" is dropped between two ICs when the meaning is absolutely clearly.
For example:
She told me she would call at 5 pm.
Joe mentioned the party was at his place.
Even if both these sentences lack "that", they are not ambiguous in their meaning.
Use of "that" is imperative when it is used as relative pronoun.
For example:
Joe gave me a book that was lying in his room for six months now.
Hope this helps.
Thanks.
answered Jun 10, 2017 by Beginner (21 points)
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answered Jun 10, 2017 by Beginner (1 point)
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# Solution

### Sentence Analysis

• Many experts regarded (Main Clause. Subject ? "experts"; Verb ? "regarded")
• the increase in credit card borrowing in March (The object of "regarded". This is X in "regarded X not as Y but as Z")
• not as a sign that households were pressed for cash and forced to borrow, (This is Y in "regarded X not as Y but as Z")
• r ather a sign of confidence by households that they could safely handle new debt. (This should be Z in "regarded X not as Y but as Z". As is, this is not parallel to "not" part)

The basic structure of the sentence is: Many experts regarded X not as Y rather Z. The sentence has the following errors:

1. The structure "not X rather Y" is non-idiomatic. The correct structure is "not X but Y".
2. The element after ?not? i.e. "as a sign_" is not parallel to the element after ?rather? i.e. "a sign_"

### Option Analysis

(A) Incorrect . For the errors mentioned above.

(B) Incorrect . For the following reasons:

1. "not X yet Y" is non-idiomatic.
2. The structure in the "not" part has a clause after "sign" whereas in this option, the structure in the "yet" part has a prepositional phrase after "sign". Even though this is not a deterministic error, it is better to have as much parallel structures as possible.
3. "sign of households' confidence that it was safe for them" is an indirect and wordy way to express the same idea expressed directly and concisely in option D.

(C) Incorrect . For the following reasons:

1. The element after ?not? i.e. "as a sign_" is not parallel to the element after ?but? i.e. "a sign_"
2. Problem no. 2 of option B

(D) Correct . The structures after "not" and "but" are completely parallel. "not X but Y" is the correct idiom.

(E) Incorrect . For the following reasons:

1. "not X but also Y" is non-idiomatic. This structure also distorts the meaning since "also" indicates that the second part is in addition to the first part. On the contrary, the second part is a alternative to the first part.
2. The position of "safely" is incorrect. "safely" should appear after "to".
answered Jun 10, 2017 by Beginner (1 point)
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