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An ABSOLUTE PHRASE is a MODIFIER (quite often a PARTICIPLE

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An ABSOLUTE PHRASE is a MODIFIER (quite often a PARTICIPLE), or a modifier and a few other words, that attaches to a SENTENCE or a NOUN, with no CONJUNCTION. An absolute phrase cannot contain a FINITE VERB.
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There are two types of absolute phrases.
One type explains a cause for or a condition of the rest of the sentence. These types of absolute phrases could be rewritten as subordinate clauses introduced by since, because, or when.
The second type adds detail or narrows the focus of the sentence. These types of absolute phrases could be rewritten and changed into main clauses or introduced with the proposition with.
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1. *Weather permitting* we shall meet in the evening.
2. *Her arms folded across her chest*, Professor Hill warned the class about the penalties of plagiarism.
3. *Legs quivering*, our old dog Gizmo dreamed of chasing squirrels.
4. *The sun having risen*, we set out on our journey.
5. *Her determination stronger than ever*, Nexisa resolved not to give up until she had achieved her dreams.
6. We finished the hearty meal quickly, *our appetites satisfied, our minds at peace*.
7. *All things being equal*, the active voice tends to be correct more often than the passive on standardized tests.
8. *The moon only a quarter full and the stars hidden*, the night offered a landscape of shadow.
9. *The suspect long gone*, a party atmosphere returned to the Johnson family barbecue.
10. Tom ran down the street, *his arms swinging wildly*.
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Please notice that in every case the absolute phrase provides some sort of information that works to put the whole sentence or idea in context. Please also notice that the absolute phrases themselves do NOT contain verbs, nor are they connected to the main sentence with a conjunction. Finally, please notice that the primary components of most (but not all) of these absolute phrases are a NOUN + a MODIFIER, although it is possible to use only a modifier.

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